Effects of botanical extracts and formulations against fruit fly, fruit and pod borers on tomato and yard-long bean.
Seed kernel extracts of China berry (Melia azedarach) against oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) and tomato fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera), and commercial neem formulations containing azadirachtin (Biofree-I® and Thai neem 111®) against the legume pod borer (Maruca vitrata) were tested in Taiwan and Thailand to confirm their effects on oviposition, feeding, growth and development. Various extracts from M. azedarach seed kernels significantly reduced the oviposition of B. dorsalis and the efficacy was similar to Biofree-I®. The green drupe and dry seed kernel extracts of M. azedarach substantially increased larval mortality, and reduced successful pupation, pupal weight, adult emergence, fecundity and egg hatch of H. armigera larvae. Commercial neem formulations exhibited adverse morphogenic effects on various biological parameters of M. vitrata, but they did not reduce oviposition and egg hatch. M. azedarach extracts and commercial neem formulations can be employed together for the sustainable management of B. dorsalis, H. armigera and M. vitrata.