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Duration: 2013 – 2015

The most important vegetable crops grown in Indonesia, particularly in lowland coastal production, are the true shallot (Allium cepa var. aggregatum) and chilli (Capsicum annuum). These crops are usually grown in rotation with rice but are far more valuable crops and are increasingly in high demand. They offer an opportunity for small farmers to generate extra income, increase farm profitability and shift away from subsistence production. However, the yield and profitability of shallot and chilli production is severely limited by a range of agronomic constraints. The major issues affecting the productivity and profitability of these cropping systems are the management of fungal and viral diseases, the supply of disease free shallot seed bulbs, and the overuse of nitrogen fertilizer and chemicals (Harper et al. 2010). These limitations are further compounded as peak demand for these commodities coincides with significant cultural and festive occasions that do not correspond to optimal production periods.

This project aims to raise the productivity of allium (shallot and garlic) and chilli/capsicum cropping systems by:

• Characterizing the agronomic practices of shallot-chilli-rice production systems
• Identifying and quantifying the incidence of significant pathogens and agronomic issues in allium and capsicum crops
• Evaluating opportunities for developing a system to supply clean, pathogen-tested allium bulb seed
• Developing strategies for reducing fertilizer use
• Promoting improved shallot/chilli agronomy and disease management strategies

The project links directly with key Australian allium and solanaceous vegetable crop issues. In Australia, there is a need to improve nitrogen management for vegetable crops grown in the catchments that drain to the Great Barrier Reef lagoon and Moreton Bay. The status of virus diseases in allium crops is not well documented and the endemic nature of specific viruses has restricted allium crop production (particularly garlic). Several key exotic viral diseases threaten solanaceous vegetable crops in Australia.

Indonesia, Australia

AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center


  • Queensland Government (DEEDI)
  • The University of Queensland


  • Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta
  • Bogor Agricultural University
  • Indonesian Vegetables Research Institute (IVEGRI)
  • Directorate General Horticulture (DGH)
  • Indonesian Centre for Horticultural Research and Development (ICHORD)
  • Indonesia Agency for Agricultural Research and Development (IAARD)
  • Rijk Zwaan Seed