All tropical and subtropical areas
Tender shoots are eaten boiled or stir-fried, or powdered and added to sauce.
Beta-carotene: high; vitamin E: medium; ascorbic acid: high; calcium: low; iron: low; protein: 3.0%. Leaves contain also anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antigastrointestinal
bacterial coumarins, flavonols and stilbenoids (flavonoids), phytosterols, polyacetylenes, and triterpenes, as well as saponins.
Read more: Blackjack, in Discovering Indigenous Treasures: Promising Indigenous Vegetables from Around the World. 2009. AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center.